In tropical rain-forests show the highest productivity. In aquatic ecosystems, coral reefs have the highest productivity.
Tropical forests have the highest biodiversity and primary productivity of any of the biomes. Net primary productivity ranges from 2–3 kg m-2 y-1 or higher.
Cold and dry biomes have the highest net primary production. Primary consumers convert solar or chemical energy into energy stored in the bonds of organic sugars. Water moves toward areas of lower salinity. Ecologists tend to divide the photic zone of lakes and ponds based on distance from the bottom.
The most productive aquatic biome is a coral reef. These are found in the benthic zone of the ocean in shallow enough water that sunlight reaches the seafloor. This supports a variety of photosynthetic organisms that are eaten by the wide variety of primary consumers that make their home in the coral reef.
Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Many animals rely on estuaries for food, places to breed, and migration stopovers. Estuaries are delicate ecosystems. Congress created the system to protect more than one million acres of estuarine land and water.
In terms of npp per unit area, the most productive systems are estuaries, swamps and marshes, tropical rain forests, and temperate rain forests (see figure 4.
Impacts from human activity on land and in the water can influence ecosystems profoundly. Climate change, ocean acidification, permafrost melting, habitat loss, eutrophication, stormwater runoff, air pollution, contaminants, and invasive species are among many problems facing ecosystems.
Ecosystem threats include (1) climate change, (2) pollution, (3) habitat destruction, (4) overexploitation, and (5) introduction of invasive species.
We depend completely on nature for essential, life-sustaining services – clean air and water, a stable climate, food – yet our activities are having an increasingly dramatic and detrimental effect on wildlife and ecosystems, putting not just wild species but also our own survival at risk.
Humans are an integral part of ecosystems. Ecosystems provide a variety of benefits to people, including provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. Provisioning services are the products people ob- tain from ecosystems, such as food, fuel, fiber, fresh water, and genetic resources.
In all these environments, organisms interact and use available resources, such as food, space, light, heat, water, air, and shelter. Each population of organisms, and the individuals within it, interact in specific ways that are limited by and can benefit from other organisms.
Overfishing, for example, removes fish from the oceans faster than they can be replaced through reproduction, stressing the balance of the ecosystem. Burning fossil fuels and cutting old-growth forests are other examples of overexploitation, as these resources can't be replaced once they are gone.
As well as the vivid beauty that comes with great diversity in plants and animals, rainforests also play a practical role in keeping our planet healthy. By absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing the oxygen that we depend on for our survival. The absorption of this co2 also helps to stabilize the earth's climate.
Three-quarters is driven by agriculture. Beef production is responsible for 41% of deforestation, palm oil and soybeans account for another 18%, and logging for paper and wood across the tropics, another 13%. These industries are also dominant in a few key countries.
There is overwhelming evidence that human activities, especially burning fossil fuels, are leading to increased levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which in turn amplify the natural greenhouse effect, causing the temperature of the earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land surface to.
Olivia Campbell is a passionate writer and social enthusiast residing in Toronto, Canada. She has a deep-rooted interest in people and society, with a focus on topics related to social justice, human rights, and cultural diversity.
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